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A steel wire rope is a carrying strand.

The steel wire rope is also a strand mechanism.

Steel wire ropes are technical equipment.

Rope units stand out from mechanical units or other complex constructions, where they are used. Basic function of ropes is carrying axial loads and sometimes also transverse loads (strings between some supports – carrying ropes, ropeways, ropes in cranes, building constructions).

For the first time wire hoisting rope was used officially in mining industry in July, 1834. The first steel rope was installed on inclined drift of the length 484m in the mine Carolina in Harz Mountains (Germany).

Wilhelm August Albert (1787-1846) was inventor of the steel wire rope. Albert’s rope is commonly regarded as prototype of all steel ropes.  The Albert’s rope, of diameter around 17 mm, was a hand-made rope. It consisted of three strands. Each strand contained four wires of diameters 3.5 mm. This was lang-lay rope of total length 605m; it consisted of many short wires connected one to another. Due to really short fatigue life, such construction did not become popular, but the way in which rope was laid, was commonly known as Lang’s lay (lang-lay rope).

Machines for production of strands and ropes were invented in the years 1837-1840. Earlier, ropes had been manufactured manually. In Poland, first hoisting wire ropes were used in coal mines of Upper and Lower Silesia in 1844 as well as in salt mine in Wieliczka in 1853. Many wire rope factories were established in Silesia in these times.







The first factory at the territory of Poland was founded in Zabrze by Adolf Deichsel in 1855. Next wire rope factory was set up in 1881 as a branch of the factory in Zabrze. It was founded by Adolf Deichsel junior (1858-1936). At that time, the company “Adolf Deichsel – Drahtwerke und Seilfabriken” had following branches: Sosnowiec (Russia), Witkowitz (Mahren), Miskolc (Hungary). In 1881, a factory in Radomsko was established, which was well-known for its production of flat sewed ropes. In 1895, a German, Carl Klauke founded “Wire Products Factory C. Klauke” in Włocławek. In the second half of the XIX century wire rope factory was established in Wałbrzych. It was known later as “Linmet”. In the years 1925/26, a German, Bode founded rope factory in Bytom – Karb.

Modern rope and wire factory was constructed in Włocławek in 1970. The newest wire rope factory, that was ”Stolin”, was established in April 1990 in Rogowiec, near Bełchatów in Łódź province.

In the 1990s many ownership changes took place in all factories in Poland. The process is still in progress.

The factory in Radomsko, later “Komuna Paryska” and then “Metalurgia”, stopped producing wire flat ropes in the middle of 1990s. The rope factory in Bytom ceased to exist in July 2008. And the factory from Wałbrzych was moved to Świdnica in 2010 (Frezpol - Siedlce).

            In 1950, the wire and rope production plant in Bytom was incorporated into the factory in Zabrze. In October 1972, as a result of merger of Rope and Wire Factory in Zabrze, Rope and Wire Factory in Sosnowiec (former ’’Sosnolin’’), Rope and Wire Factory in Bytom and Lower-Silesian Rope Factory in Wałbrzych (former ’’Linmet’’), a state-owned company was formed. It was known as Silesian Steel Wire and Rope Factory ’’Linodrut’’ with its seat in Zabrze. The company was leading Polish manufacturer of ropes and wires. It specialized in steel wire products of standard and high quality.

In general ’’Linodrut’’ controlled more than 30% of domestic market. But taking into consideration only rope production, it was even more than 40%. Consumers of its products came from was following sectors: mining industry, metallurgy, construction industry, machinery industry, shipbuilding industry, automotive industry, textile industry and military industry.

In December 1990 ’’Linodrut’’ was transformed into a joint-stock company wholly owned by the State Treasury (’’Linodrut’’S.A.). Political and economic changes in 1990, deterioration in condition of the company connected with decrease in number of submitted orders from transformed sectors (mainly mining and metallurgy) resulted in independence of particular staffs of ’’Linodrut’’. Consequently, on the 1st of January 1994, the following companies started their independent activity:

  • Rope and Wire Factory ’’Falind’’, Limited Liability Company in Sosnowiec,
  • Lower-Silesian Rope and Wire Factory ’’Linodrut - Linmet’’ Limited Liability Company in Wałbrzych.

Silesian Steel Wire and Rope Factory ’’Linodrut’’ joint-stock company made a contribution in-kind to new limited liability companies in Sosnowiec and Wałbrzych in the form of real estates and selected movables – machinery and equipment (share capital). Companies in Sosnowiec and Wałbrzych leased out other company movables from ’’Linodrut’’ joint-stock company for the period of 5 years. ’Linodrut’’ earned directly on quarterly leasing installments, and indirectly the benefits went also to factories in Zabrze and Bytom. The mother company ’’Linodrut’’ had initially 100% shares in daughter limited liability companies.

60% of shares in ’’Linodrut’’ were allocated into National Investment Funds in 1995. Leading packet was received by II NIF. ’’Linodrut’’ was a dominant entity in the capital group. The mother joint-stock company ’’Linodrut’’ consisted of two plants (Zabrze and Bytom) until April 1997. By this time the limited liability companies in Zabrze and Bytom became independent on the basis of the working capital mother company had contributed as a registered capital (share capital).

The years 1997-2005 was a period of chaos, capital and ownership changes in all limited liability companies – former plants of ’’Linodrut’. It was time of various structural transformation and restructuring.  In this period former and new companies were operating on the basis of the same share capitals, which were leased by one to another. Companies’ names and logos were changing. Only the problems remained the same – difficult economic and financial situation. New-formed companies were even poorer than the former liquidated ones. Employment restructuring (downsizing) did not keep up with production restructuring (decrease in number of orders).

In February 2004 the company ’’Falind’’ in Sosnowiec was liquidated. Its share capital was bought from the receiver by Mining Supplies Central Office Joint-Stock Company (CZG S.A.) in Katowice in January 2005.

In May 2005 a limited liability company ’’Polskie Liny’’ was established with its registered office in Katowice. Its production plant started operating since the 1st of November 2005 on the area of liquidated limited liability company ’’CZG – Stal’’.

CZG S.A. owned 100 percent of the company ’’Polskie Liny’’, being simultaneously owner of the share capital.


The company “Linodrut S.A.” was dissolved on the 1st of September 2005 (definitely too late). Bankruptcy of “Linodrut S.A.” should have been announced immediately after the time when companies in Zabrze and Bytom became independent and received depreciated property, plant and equipment through in-kind contribution.






            As it was mentioned before, Adolf Deichsel junior established a rope factory in Sosnowiec in 1881 as a branch of the factory in Zabrze.

            After passing school-leaving examination, he started apprenticeship in his father’s company in Zabrze. Having acquired some experience in running the business, in 1881 young Deichsel started building his rope and wire factory in Sosnowiec on the territory of Piotrków Governorate in the Russian partition. For this purpose he bought some land from Ludwik Mauve – general director of a company exploiting natural resources.

            The factory in Sosnowiec manufactured hemp and wire ropes as well as wires and seals. Company leading products were steel wire ropes used in hoisting shafts of coal mines. Adolf Deichsel senior died in 1895 and his son became sole owner of the whole company. At the beginning of the XX century Deichsel extended factory in Sosnowiec. The company was operating under the name ’’Factory of Wire, Steel and Hemp Ropes, Seals and Sailcloth’’. It was employing 400 people and operating very well. The factory and its area was for some time a German enclave in Sosnowiec, because Management Board, Engineers and workers were Germans who came from Mysłowice.

Adolf Deichsel moved from Zabrze to Mysłowice and opened there company office in order to take control of the company in Sosnowiec. Then he married daughter of famous owner of construction company, Mr. Knaut from Mysłowice. During his stay in Mysłowice, Adolf Deichsel became involved in public activity. He took up also social work. He built houses for workers of factory in Sosnowiec, which became stimulus for extension of district Dębowa Góra in Sosnowiec between following streets: Lipowa, Strzelecka, Tylna and Dębowa. He also built a leisure center for his employees in Polanica-Zdrój (Altheide), which was called ’’Emma’’ in honor of his daughter.

Adolf Deichsel moved from Mysłowice to Berlin after the First World War. He died there in 1936. His descendants were daughter Emma and son Elwin.

In the interwar period the factory was producing ropes and wires for domestic market and also some small quantities for export to Italy and Romania.

Even in 1919 the rope factory in Sosnowiec manufactured all known construction of ropes, including triangular strand ropes.

            Adolf Deichsel, by notary deed (Sosnowiec) as of 6th of March 1922, registered under the number N 379, as the owner of the property consisting of the rope and wire factory under the name “A. Deichsel” together with dwellings, authorized Kacper Stefanowski, director of the factory, to sell the abovementioned real estate together with assets and liabilities, to a citizen of the USA, John Mac-Ateer, residing in Berlin.

The director of the factory, Kacper Stefanowski, by a notary deed (Warszawa) as of 10th of March 1922, registered under the number N 478, acting on behalf of Adolf Deichsel on the basis of power of attorney, sold John Mac-Ateer for the agreed price 5,000,000 German marks (84,500,000 Polish marks) the real estate owned by Adolf Deichsel (71,617 m2) with all the movables on its area, without any exclusion for Adolf Deichsel. The director, K. Stefanowski approved the transfer of ownership to the buyer.

            Earlier, Council of Ministers had adopted a resolution on 7th of November 1921, in relation to the act as of the 24th of March 1920, which allowed John Mac-Ateerowi to buy the factory from Adolf Deichsel and transfer ownership of this property.

            On the 9th of March 1922 Main Liquidation Office in Warsaw consented to John Mac-Ateer purchasing the land owned by Adolf Deichsel together with the factory located thereon.

            The notary deed (Sosnowiec) as of 22nd of March 1924, registered under the number N 291, established a joint-stock company under the name “Factory of wire, steel and hemp ropes, shot, seals and sailcloth Adolf Deichsel –  joint-stock company”. This company was founded in order to extend operation of the factory. Its goal was also deal with other branches of metal industry and production of sailcloth.  Founders of the company were: John-Aleksander Mac-Ateer, Mieczysław Cimoszko (engineer) and Stanisław Szczygielski (attorney). The company was a legal person. The Articles of Association had been approved on 12th of February 1924 by the Minister of Industry and Trade and Minister of the Treasury. Registered office of the company was located in Sosnowiec. Company’s share capital was 50,000 Polish zloty (5 thousand shares at 10 Polish zloty each). Company’s authorities were: General Assembly, Management Board and Auditing Committee. John Aleksander Mac-Ateer agreed to sell the whole production plant to the new joint-stock company for 4730 company shares (except for the part of goods worth 20,000 Polish zloty).


            In 1935, the factory manufactured the first 12 ropes for Cabin Aerial Ropeway “Kasprowy Wierch”. The ropes were produced within 3 months (September - December). They were as follows:


- 4 right carrying closed ropes:

·         f 45 mm – 2 x 2110 m,

·         f 48 mm – 2 x 2410 m,

- 2 right lang-lay haulage ropes:

·         f 21 mm – S 6x19+Ao – 1 x 2330 m,

·         f 19 mm - S 6x19+Ao – 1 x 2050 m,

- 2 right lang-lay counterweight ropes:

·         f 19 mm - S 6x19+Ao – 1 x 2330 m,

·         f 17 mm - S 6x19+Ao – 1 x 2040 m,

- 2 right lang-lay catlines:

·         f 17 mm – 6x12+Ao ( 6(3+9)+Ao) – 1 x 4670 m,

·         f 16 mm - 6x12+Ao ( 6(3+9)+Ao) – 1 x 4100 m,

- 2 right stretching triangular ropes:

·         f 41 mm – 1 x 50 m,

·         f 55 mm – 1 x 58 m.


The ropeway was built in record time of 7 months at the end of 1935 and the beginning of 1936. People could go to the summit of Kasprowy Wierch by means of the aerial ropeway since March 1936. According to Austrian law, the carrying ropes could operate for not longer than 12 year and then they had to be replaced. So, between 1969 and 1970 the ropes were replaced with new ones.

The old ropes, however, thanks to electromagnetic examination (magnetic crack detection) could work 33 and 34 years instead of only 12. At present, they are used as carrying strings of the roof in sports hall in Tarnów. The best proof of their very high quality is the fact that up to present day Polish post-war industry is unable to produce ropes of such good parameters.

After the Second World War former A. Deichsel’s factory was nationalized and modernized.

            Province Commission for nationalization of enterprises in Katowice, by decision No. A 69/46 as of 18th of June 1947 decided to submit to Minister of Industry and Trade a motion of nationalization of the Rope and Wire Factory A. Deichsel in Sosnowiec at 2 Niwecka Street.

            During its 130 year-long history, activity of the rope factory in Sosnowiec was significantly dependent on external political, social and economic situation. Name of the company and its management were changed many times, but the factory survived and nowadays it is in quite good condition.

            Founder and first owner of the factory in Sosnowiec, Adolf Deichsel junior took care of quality of his products. Thanks to good reputation of his factory he gained new markets, new customers and developed the production plant. He extended the factory and modernized its machinery. Excellent references of the ropes that were manufactured, as well as very good reputation of the factory helped next owners to run business, especially on the mining market. Therefore, they were using comment ’’formerly Adolf Deichsel’’. The comment disappeared only when the company became state-owned.

            One of recently liquidated rope machines (from 1983), which remembered the early days of the factory, was basket-type twisting machine L-38 ’’Humboldt’’ 6/3000 kg with planetary mechanism. Additional reverse rotation of this machine spool framework during twisting of a triangular rope allowed not only decreasing tension of strands in the rope but also correcting length of lay of “twist” in relation to set length of lay of the rope. For almost 100 years this machine was manufacturing steel wire carrying hoisting triangular strand ropes, which were essential for Polish mining industry.

            Nowadays, the factory – Polskie Liny Sp. z o.o. (Polish Ropes Ltd.) – employees 120 high qualified employees, whose diligence and professionalism, together with organization and management system, enable the company to reach desired goals.

Due to structural and ownership changes, creation of market economy and presence of strong competition in the 1990s, many European factories, which had really long-standing tradition and significant contribution to the development of rope industry, had to stop their activity.

            The rope factory in Sosnowiec survived and at the threshold of its 14th decade it focuses not only on its further development, but also consequently carries out principles of its long-lasting plan of action and adjusts it to current market situation.







Polish Ropes – 5 years on the market


Polskie Liny Sp z o.o. (Polish Ropes Ltd.) has been the leading manufacturer of steel ropes and wires in the last 5 years. The ropes and wires are produced in the factory whose tradition goes back to 1881 (formerly A. Deichsel). We manufacture traditional steel wire ropes, mainly for Polish mining industry: bituminous coal mines, cooper ore mines, salt mines, zinc and lead ore mines as well as brown coal strip mines. Annual volume of production is around 3500 – 4000 tones.

Our basic products are:

  1. Mining hoisting steel wire ropes:
    • carrying ropes

- round strand: S, ST, WS, WK(WV)

- triangular strand

-  oval strand

·         balance ropes: round, round-strand, two- and three-layer, double laid, non-rotating, flat sewed ropes.

  1. Steel wire ropes for suspended monorails and floor-mounted railways with rope drive and mining transport systems in flat and sloping excavations.
  2. Steel wire guide and fender ropes for mining shaft hoists.


Various steel wire ropes of diameters from 1.0 up to 75.0 mm and constructions T, S, ST, W, F, WS are made of round bare (uncovered) and galvanized wires. They are widely used as load strings.

            Recently, we started production of flat hoisting (carrying) steel wire ropes, balance ropes and multilayer non-rotating ropes of class 35(M)x7 as carrying hoisting ropes for deep shafts and ropes for road safety barriers of construction 3x7. At present, following steel wire ropes are in the phase of implementation: ropes of construction 6x31WS-IWRC and 8x25F-IWRC and of construction 6x26WS-IWRC and 8x26WS-IWRC. The above steel wire ropes may be used as hoisting ropes for drill rig hoists in oil and gas fields.

Recovery from the recession after recent financial crises and continuous improvement in the economic situation in the industry should increase the demand for the company products – especially for steel wire ropes.  Polish Ropes Ltd. plans to extend sale for export, too.  The company has quality management system according to standard ISO 9001:2008, implemented and certified by BUREAU VERITAS. Currently, Polish market is protected by customs duties and tax fees as well as relatively high cost of transport in the case of import. Low cost of production also influences competitiveness of Polish products in relation to foreign counterparts.

The Management Board and employees of Polish Ropes Ltd. have following tasks to carry out in 2011 and next years:

·         increase benefits,

·         lower cost of production,

·         implement new products and new technologies into the production process, which are demanded on the market,

·         increase efficiency of management,

·         modernize machinery in the factory,

·         gain new markets for company’s products,

·         continue actions within the scope of environmental protection (ecology),

·         continue to improve work and hygiene conditions and meet increasing sanitary requirements,

·         maintain and improve quality management system - certificate  ISO 9001:2008


Performance of these tasks will require involvement of significant financial means and considerable effort of employees and Management Board in the company.

Our experience lets us hope that we can rely on our hard-working and reliable staff, which identifies the company interest with its own interest.

Quick implementation of new technical and technological solutions brings major long-lasting effects; therefore it will be necessary to observe current changes in rope industry in Poland and all over the world as well as react properly on them.

We hope that, joining forces, we will achieve even better results in coming 14th decade of our company operation.


Carrying rope manufactured in Rope and Wire Factory in Sosnowiec.


Polskie Liny Sp. z o.o.
ul. Powstańców 17
40-952 Katowice
Zakład produkcyjny:
ul. Niwecka 2
41-200 Sosnowiec
tel. +48 32 290 19 15
fax: +48 32 290 19 16
KRS 0000236178
REGON 240109716
NIP 954-251-77-67